Significant Progress Made in Containing Poliovirus Globally, says CDC

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Following the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 in 2015, trivalent vaccines were replaced with bivalent OPV.
Following the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 in 2015, trivalent vaccines were replaced with bivalent OPV.

HealthDay News -- According to a study published in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, with the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 in 2015, progress has been made toward containment of the virus.

Nicoletta Previsani, PhD, from the World Health Organization in Geneva, and colleagues summarized the current status of poliovirus containment and progress, and outlined the remaining challenges for containment.

The researchers note that only wild poliovirus type 1 is still circulating, and the number of cases and countries with endemic transmission are at record lows. In 2015, wild poliovirus type 2 was certified as eradicated, and the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was replaced globally with a bivalent OPV containing Sabin poliovirus types 1 and 3. 

Monovalent type 2 OPV was authorized for large-scale outbreak control after withdrawal of trivalent OPV in 8 countries. Poliovirus containment aims to ensure that poliovirus type 2 specimens are safely contained. 

Overall, 86 facilities in 30 countries have been designated as poliovirus-essential facilities for the continued storage or handling of poliovirus type 2 materials. Each country is responsible for making sure these facilities meet requirements for biorisk management.

"Effective containment is a prerequisite for the global certification of poliomyelitis eradication," the authors write.

Reference

Previsani N, Singh H, St Pierre J, et al. "Progress Toward Containment of Poliovirus Type 2 — Worldwide, 2017." Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66: 649–652. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6624a5

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